William Digby Prosperous British India

The Poverty Problem in India was a book published in 1895 by Prithwis Chandra Ray that analyzed various factors that were leading India to become increasingly impoverished under British rule. The book was influential and used extensively as a reference in other works and economic analysis in India throughout the twentieth century. To link to the entire object, paste this link in email, IM or document To embed the entire object, paste this HTML in website To link to this page, paste this link in email, IM or document To embed this page, paste this HTML in website.

Born1 May 1849
Wisbech
Died29 September 1904 (aged 55)
OccupationJournalist; politician
NationalityBritish
Period1878–1901
SubjectPolitics, Famines, India
Notable worksFamine Campaigns in Southern India; Prosperous British India
SpouseEllen Amelia Little; Sarah Maria Hutchinson

William Digby (1 May 1849 – 29 September 1904) was a British author, journalist and humanitarian.

Early life and career[edit]

William Digby was born in Wisbech, Cambridgeshire on 1 May 1849. He did his apprenticeship with the Isle of Ely and Wisbech Advertiser. He was employed at the Sussex Advertiser from 1864 to 1871.[1] He was married twice – first to Ellen Amelia Little in 1874 (who died in 1878) and then to Sara Maria Hutchinson in 1879. William Digby moved to the Indian subcontinent in 1871 and worked as a sub-editor in The Ceylon Observer.,[2] and as the editor of The Madras Times in 1877.[3] He also worked as the editor of the Liverpool and Southport Daily News in 1880 and that of the Plymouth Daily Western Mercury in 1879. He served as senior partner of William Hutchinson and Company in 1887.[3]

Activism and politics[edit]

While working in Sri Lanka, Digby was involved in a temperance campaign and another one for abolishing food taxes.[4]

Famine relief[edit]

While working in India, he witnessed the Great Famine of 1876–78 and involved himself in relief works. He served as the Honorary Secretary of the Executive Committee of the Famine Relief Fund.[5] He opposed the laissez faire famine relief policies of the Famine Commissioner, Sir Richard Temple and argued for more Government aid in mitigating the effects of famine. In 1878 he wrote an extensive book about the famine titled The Famine Campaign in Southern India.Vol I and Vol II. For his contribution to the famine relief works, he was made a Companion of the Order of the Indian Empire (C.I.E) in 1878. The failure of the Government of India to provide effective famine relief made William Digby an outspoken critic of the British Government's India policy.

Liberal politics[edit]

Digby returned to England in 1879 after his first wife's death.[4] In November 1882 he became the first secretary of the National Liberal Club, a post he held till 1887.[4] He advocated full economic and racial equality, then representative Government and eventually Self-Government for the Indians. He published Indian Problems for English Consideration in 1881. In it, Digby argued that Indian reform was 'a Liberal duty', and defined India as 'a larger Ireland'.[4] Digby was an admirer of Lord Ripon and published a pamphlet in February 1885 titled India for the Indians -and for England in defence of Ripon.[4] He contested the 1885 General Election as a Liberal Party candidate from the Paddington North constituency on a platform of legislative reform in India. He lost to Conservative Party candidate Lionel Louis Cohen by a margin of 685 votes (out of a total 5345 polled).[6]

The Indian Agency[edit]

British

In May 1888 he set up the Indian Political and General Agency in London for the purpose of raising awareness about Indian grievances in the British Parliament and Press.[7] He served as its secretary during 1887–1892. He became a strong advocate of constitutional reform and acted as an unofficial guide to Indian National Congress leaders visiting London. He used his political contacts (obtained through his position as the secretary of the National Liberal Club) to raise India's grievances in the British Public sphere. Through his lobbying he was able to get Charles Bradlaugh to attend the Fifth INC Conference held at Bombay in 1889. Bradlaugh also agreed to introduce a bill in British Parliament for establishing legislative councils in India. During this time Digby also worked as the editor of the Congress journal India. Though he was well paid for his efforts, the Congress office bearers in India delayed paying the expenditure for his lobbying efforts. Digby met those expenditures by doing private lobbying for the Maharaja of Kashmir. As part of his lobbying, he wrote a book titled 'Condemned Unheard' advocating the Kashmiri king's position. This private lobbying and incidents of Digby and Bradlaugh receiving money from the Kashmiri king for presenting petitions to and raising questions in parliament alarmed Allan Octavian Hume. Hume set up the 'British Committee of the Indian National Congress' to oversee the Indian Agency's work. The Committee did not want payments to be made to Bradlaugh through its books and completely ended its association with the Indian Agency in 1890. Digby served as the secretary to the British Committee from 1889 to 1892. Digby's continuing private lobbying efforts were a major embarrassment to the Congress and it cut its connections to Digby in September 1892.[8] This ended Digby's association with the Indian National Congress.

1892 election[edit]

Digby contested the 1892 General Election as the Liberal candidate from the South Islington parliamentary constituency. He lost to the Conservative candidate Albert Rollit by 321 votes.[9]

Death[edit]

Digby died on 29 September 1904.[1] Condoling his death, The Hindu Organ wrote that '..his death is a great loss to all eastern subjects of His Majesty'.[2]Gandhi wrote an obituary in the Indian Opinion on 29 October 1904 which praised him as follows :

By the death of William Digby CIE, India has lost a champion, whom it will be difficult to replace. His advocacy of the Indian cause was strenuous and well-informed... By his voluminous writings,the late Mr. Digby ever kept the different Indian questions before the public.[10]

Bibliography[edit]

  • The Famine Campaign in Southern India: Madras and Bombay Presidencies and province of Mysore, 1876–1878, Vol. 1 and Vol. 2 (1878)
  • Forty Years of Official and Unofficial Life in an Oriental Crown Colony, being the Life of Sir Richard Morgan (1879)
  • Indian Problems for English Consideration (1881)
  • India for the Indians — and for England (1885)
  • The general election, 1885. India's interest in the British ballot box (1885)
  • 1857: A friend in need 1887: Friendship forgotten, An episode in Indian Foreign Office Administration (1890)
  • Condemned Unheard: The Government of India and H.H. the Maharaja of Kashmir : a Letter to the Rt. Hon. Sir Ughtred Kay-Shuttleworth (1890)
  • Prosperous British India – A Revelation from Official Records (1901)
William Digby Prosperous British India

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ abRiddick, P.256
  2. ^ abMartyn, P.277
  3. ^ abKaminsky, P.237
  4. ^ abcdeWilliam Digby and the Indian Question by Mira Matikkala
  5. ^Digby(Famine Campaign Vol 2), P.1
  6. ^Debrett, P.219
  7. ^Owen, P.31
  8. ^Owen, P.32-36
  9. ^Constitutional Year Book 1914, p.113
  10. ^Gandhi, P.285

References[edit]

  • Brown, Frank Herbert (1912). 'Digby, William' . Dictionary of National Biography (2nd supplement). London: Smith, Elder & Co.
  • Digby, William (1878), The Famine Campaign in Southern India: Madras and Bombay Presidencies and province of Mysore, 1876–1878, Volume 1, London: Longmans, Green and Co
  • Digby, William (1878), The Famine Campaign in Southern India: Madras and Bombay Presidencies and province of Mysore, 1876–1878, Volume 2, London: Longmans, Green and Co
  • Kaminsky, Arnold. P (1986), The India Office, 1880–1910, Connecticut: Greenwood Publishing Group, ISBN0-313-24909-1
  • Martyn, John. H (2003) [1923], Martyn's notes on Jaffna: chronological, historical, biographical, New Delhi: Asian Educational Services, ISBN81-206-1670-7
  • Gandhi, Mohandas K (1958), Collected Works, Volume 4, New Delhi: Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Govt. of India
  • Kaul, Chandrika; Brown, 'F. H. 'Digby, William (1849–1904)'. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/32823.(Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  • Owen, Nicholas (2007), The British left and India: metropolitan anti-imperialism, 1885–1947, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press, ISBN0-19-923301-2
  • Mair, Robert Henry (1886), Debrett's House of Commons, London: Dean and Son
  • The Constitutional year book, Volume 1914, National Unionist Association of Conservative and Liberal Unionist Organizations, 1914
  • Riddick, John F. (2006), The history of British India: a chronology, Greenwood Publishing Group, ISBN0-313-32280-5

External links[edit]

  • Famine Campaigns in Southern India: Volume 1, Volume 2
Retrieved from 'https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=William_Digby_(writer)&oldid=957377826'

Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ) and Answers on Indian National Movement (I) / Moderate and Extremist Phase

Question 1: Royal Asiatic Society was founded by
a) Sir William Jones
b) Sir John Marshall
c) R D Banerjee
d) Sir William Bentick

Answer: (a)

Question 2: Who was the founder of the Indian Association?
a) Surendranath Bannerjee
b) Bal Gangadhar Tilak
c) Dadabhai Naoroji
d) A O Hume

Answer: (a)

Question 3: Who observed “The Congress is in reality a civil war without arms”?
a) Lord Dufferin
b) M A Jinnah
c) Sir Sayeed Ahmed Khan
d) Lord Curzon

Answer: (c)

Question 4: Who attended the Imperial Durbar (1877) dressed in hand spun khadi?
a) Ganesh vasudev Joshi
b) MG Ranade
c) Rabindranath Tagore
d) Balendranath Tagore

Answer: (a)

Question 5: The earliest public association had been formed in modern India in 1837 was
a) The Bengal British Indian Society
b) The British India Association
c) The Landholders Society
d) The Madras Native Association

Answer: (c)

Question 6: The European organisation in India which launched agitationagainst the Illbert Bill was
a) European Defence Association
b) Indo-British Assosiation
c) Anti- Illbert Bill League
d) European Right Front

Answer: (a)

Question 7: Who among the following pioneered Khilafat Movement?
a) Sir Syeed Ahmed Khan
b) M A Jinnah
c) Mahatma Gandhi
d) Ali Brothers

Answer: (d)

Question 8: Which one of the following pairs is not correctly matched?
a) Dadabhai Naoroji : Poverty and UnBritish rule in India
b) R C Dutt : Economic History of India
c) William Digby : Prosperous British India
d) DR Gadgil : Indian Industry, Today and Tomorrow

Answer: (d)

Question 9: Aurobindo Ghosh was brilliantly defeated in the Alipur Conspiracy case by
a) Chittaranjan Das
b) WC Banerjee
c) Motilal Nehru
d) Tej Bahadur Sapru

Answer: (a)

Question 10: Through whose initiative was the Dhaka Anushilan Samiti formed in October 1906?
a) Barindra Kumar Ghosh
b) Memchandra Qanungo
c) Pulin Bihari Das
d) Aurobindo Ghosh

Answer: (c)

Question 11: Who among the following was a proponent of Fabianisim as a movement?
a) Annie Besant
b) Michael Madhusudan Dutt
c) AO Hume
d) R Palme Dutt

Answer: (a)

Question 12: A London branch of the All India Muslim League was established in 1908 in the presidency of
a) Aga Khan
b) Ameer Ali
c) Liaquat Ali Khan
d) MA Jinnah

Answer: (b)

Question 13: Who among the following was known as Deshbandhu?
a) Aurobindo Ghosh
b) Chittaranjan Das
c) Dadabhai Naoroji
d) Jyotiba Phule

Answer: (b)

Question 14: The word Adivasi was used for the first time to refer to the tribal people by
a) Mahatma Gandhi
b) Thakkar Bappa
c) Jyotiba Phule
d) BR Ambedkar

Answer: (b)

Question 15: During the British rule the only British King to visit India and hold his magnificient Durbar was
a) Edward VII
b) George V
c) James II
d) Edward VI

Answer: (b)

William Digby Prosperous British India Crossword

Question 16: In which of the following years was the All India Trade Union Congress formed in Bombay?
a) 1918
b) 1919
c) 1920
d) 1921

Answer: (c)

Question 17: In October who of the following headed a group of Indians gathered at Tashkent to set up a Communist party of India?
a) HK Sarkar
b) PC Joshi
c) MC Chagla
d) MN Roy

Answer: (d)

Question 18: Which of the following organisations anticipated the Congress by two years and in large measures prepared the ground for the Congress?
a) Indian Association
b) All Indian National Conference
c) Indian National Union
d) Indian League

Answer: (b)

Question 19: Bal Gangadhar Tilak was given the epithet of Lokmanya (Universally Respected) during
a) Swadeshi Movement
b) Revolutionary Movement
c) Home Rule Movement
d) His imprisonment in 1908

Answer: (c)

Question 20: During the period of the Indian Freedom Struggle, who among the following started the Central Hindu School?
a) Annie Besant
b) Bhikaji Cama
c) MG Ranade
d) Madan Mohan Malaviya

Answer: (a)

Question 21: The Congress policy of pray and petition ultimately came to an end under the guidance of
a) Aurobindo Ghosh
b) Bal Gangadhar Tilak
c) Lala Lajpat Rai
d) Mahatma Gandhi

Answer: (b)

Question 22: A Muslim organisation, which proposed during the First World that muslims should participate and try to reach an accord with the Congress, was
a) Muslim League
b) Ahmadiya Movement
c) Ehrar League
d) Deoband Movement

Answer: (c)

Question 23: With reference to Indian Freedom Struggles, who among the following was labelled as ‘Moderate’ leader in the Congress?
a) Gopal Krishna Gokhale
b) Bipin Chandra Pal
c) Lala Lajpat Rai
d) Aurobindo Ghosh

Answer: (a)

Question 24: During the Indian Freedom Struggle, who among the following proposed that Swaraj should be defined as complete independence free from all foreign control?
a) Mazharul Haque
b) Maulana Hasrat Mohani
c) Hakim Ajmal Khan
d) Abdul Kalam Azad

Answer: (b)

Question 25: Who gave the title of Rani to the Naga woman leader Gaidinliu?
a) Subhash Bose
b) Jawaharlal Nehru
c) Thakkar Bappa
d) Mahatma Gandhi

William Digby Prosperous British India

Answer: (b)

Question 26: Who among the following was elected as the president of All India Khilafat Conference met at Delhi in 1919?
a) Motilal Nehru
b) Mahatma Gandhi
c) M A Jinnah
d) Shaukat Ali

Answer: (b)

Question 27: Who among the following first used the word ‘Swarajya’?
a) Raja Rammohan Roy
b) Bal Gangadhar Tilak
c) Mahatma Gandhi
d) Swami Vivekanand

Answer: (b)

Question 28: Who founded a social organisation, the “Jat-Pat Torak Mandal” in 1922, for breaking the caste barriers among the Hindus?
a) Bharti Parmanand
b) BR Ambedkar
c) MG Ranade
d) Keshab Chandra Sen

Answer: (a)

Question 29: The name of Ram Prasad Bismil is associated with
a) Kanpur Conspiracy Case
b) Alipore Conspiracy Case
c) Kakori Conspiracy Case
d) Meerut Conspiracy Case

Answer: (c)

Question 30: Who among the following annulled the Partition of Bengal?
a) Lord Chelmsford
b) Lord Curzon
c) Lord Minto
d) Lord Hardinge

Answer: (d)

Question 31: Who among the following was not a leader of the All India Hindu Maha Sabha?
a) VD Savarkar
b) Parmanand
c) Dr Shyam Prasad Mukherjee
d) MR Jayakar

Answer: (d)

Question 32: Who among the following founded the Theosophical society in India in 1879?
a) Madame Blavatsky and Annie Besant
b) Madame Blavatsky and HS Olcott
c) HS Olcott and Annie Besant
d) Madame Blavatsky and AO Hume
.
Answer: (b)

Question 32: Who among the following was a founder of Swaraj Party?
a) Vallabhbhai patel
b) Rajendra Prasad
c) CR Das
d) Narendra Deb

Answer: (c)

Question 33: Who among the following gave a systematic critique of the moderate politics of the Indian National Congress in a series of articles entitled New Lamps for Old?
a) Aurobindo Ghosh
b) RC Dutt
c) Syed Ahmed Khan
d) Viraraghavachari

Answer: (a)

Question 34: Which of the following are known as the Bombay Triumvirate?
a) BG Tilak, Gk Gokhale and MB Namjoshi
b) Firozshah Mehta, KT Telang and Badruddin Tyabji
c) BG Tilak, GG Agarkar and GH Deshmukh
d) Dadabhai Naoroji, KT Telang and RG Bhandarker

Answer: (b)

Question 35: Who was the first to unfurl the first Indian National Flag, the parent and precursor of the flag of Independent India?
a) Madam Bhikaji Cama
b) Dadabhai Naoroji
c) Raja Mahendra Pratap
d) Taraknath Das

Answer: (a)

Question 36: ‘The Musalman,’ the hand written daily newspaper in circulation since 1927, is published from which of the following places?
a) Chennai
b) Hyderabad
c) Mysore
d) Lucknow

Answer: (d)

Question 37: Who organised the Gadar Party?
a) VD Savarkar
b) Ras Bihari Bose
c) Madan lal Dhingra
d) Lala Hardayal

Answer: (d)

Question 38: The only Indian prince, who actively participated in the revolutionary movement within and outside India, was
a) Raja Mahendra Pratap
b) Kunwar Singh
c) Chhatrapati Sahu
d) Raja Ripudaman Singh

Answer: (a)

Question 39: Which of the following did not contribute in a major way to the growth of a nationalist consciousness in India?
a) Impact of western education
b) Consistent economic exploitation of India by the British
c) Revivalist movements of the 19th century
d) World public opinion
.
Answer: (d)

Question 40: MC Setalwad BN Rao and Alladi Krishanswamy Iyer were distinguished member of
a) Swaraj Party
b) All India National Liberal Federation
c) Madras Labour Union
d) Servants of India Society

Answer: (d)

Question 41: Who among the following founded a National Society, a National Paper, a National School, a National Gymnasium and made the word ‘National’ popular in the later half of the 19th century?
a) Jyotindranath Tagore
b) Rajanarayan Bose
c) Nabagopal Mitra
d) Satyendranath Tagore

Answer: (c)

Question 42: Which one among the following was not a demand of the early Congress (1885-1905)?
a) Indianisation of the superior grades of the administrative services
b) Purna Swaraj/Complete independence
c) Abolition of the Arms Act
d) Autonomy with the Empire

Answer: (b)

Question 43: The birth and death years of Dr BR Ambedkar are
a) 1886, 1951
b) 1891, 1956
c) 1877, 1961
d) 1889, 1961

Answer: (b)

Question 44: Which one of the following movements has contributed to a split in the Indian National Congress resulting in the emergence of moderates and extremists?
a) Swadeshi Movement
b) Quit India Movement
c) Non-Cooperation Movement
d) Civil Disobedience Movement

Answer: (a)

Question 45: At which venue did the 1907 split in Congress Party take place?
a) Banaras
b) Calcutta
c) Nagpur
d) Surat

Answer: (a)

Question 46: Which among the following was the most immediate factor for the spread of Swadeshi and boycott of foreign goods during the first decade of the last century?
a) Curzon’s design to curtail the sphere of local self-government
b) Curzon’s attempt to control the Universities
c) Curzon’s partition of Bengal
d) Curzon’s plan to curb the growing popularity of the Indian National Congress

Answer: (c)

Question 47: In which one of the following sessions was the Indian National Congress split into moderates and extremists?
a) Nagpur
b) Allahabad
c) Surat
d) Calcutta

Answer: (c)

Question 48: The first Indian leader to undergo imprisonment in 1882 was
a) BG Tilak
b) Viraraghavachari
c) Ashwani Kumar Dutta
d) Bipin Chandra Pal

Answer: (b)

Question 49: The British Indian Association was formed out of an amalgamation of
a) Landholders’ Society and Zamindari Association
b) British India Society and Landholders’ Society
c) Landholders’ Society and Bengal British India Society
d) Landholders’ Society and Indian Association

William digby prosperous british india

William Digby Prosperous British India Traveller

Answer: (d)

William Digby Prosperous British India Map

Question 50: The Government of India Act of 1919 clearly defined?
a) the separation of power between the judiciary and the legislature.
b) the jurisdiction of the Central and Provincial Governments.
c) the powers of the Secretary of State for India and the Viceroy.
d) None of the above.

William Digby Prosperous British India War

Answer: (b)