Amelia Stewart Viscountess Castlereagh

Amelia Stewart, Viscountess Castlereagh (Q4742307). Amelia Anne Stewart, Marchioness of Londonderry (20 February 1772 – 12 February 1829), from 1794 until 1821 generally known as Emily Stewart, Lady Castlereagh /ˈkɑːsəlreɪ/, was the wife of the Georgian era Irish statesman Robert Stewart, Viscount Castlereagh, who from 1812 to 1822 was British Foreign Secretary and Leader of the House of Commons. Property Value; dbo:wikiPageID 18724609 (xsd:integer); dbo:wikiPageRevisionID 559436999 (xsd:integer); rdf:type skos:Concept; rdfs:label Women of the Regency era (en. Amelia Anne Stewart, Marchioness of Londonderry (20 February 1772 – 12 February 1829), from 1794 until 1821 generally known as Emily Stewart, Lady Castlereagh, was the wife of the Georgian era Irish statesman Robert Stewart, Viscount Castlereagh, who from 1812 to 1822 was British Foreign Secretary and Leader of the House of Commons.


The Earl of Buckinghamshire

Lord Lieutenant of Ireland
In office
7 December 1776 – 19 November 1780
Preceded byThe Earl Harcourt
Succeeded byThe Earl of Carlisle

John Hobart, 2nd Earl of Buckinghamshire (17 August 1723 – 3 August 1793) was an English nobleman and politician.

Blickling Hall
Amelia

Biography[edit]

The son of John Hobart, 1st Earl of Buckinghamshire by his first wife Judith Britiffe, he was educated at Westminster School and Christ's College, Cambridge.[1] He was Member of Parliament for Norwich from 1747 to 1756, having also been elected for St Ives in 1747 but opting to sit for Norwich. He held office as Comptroller of the Household in 1755-56 and as a Lord of the Bedchamber from 1756 to 1767, having succeeded his father as Earl in 1756.[2] He was Ambassador from the United Kingdom to Russia from 1762 to 1765 and Lord Lieutenant of Ireland from 1776 to 1780, when his Chief Secretary was Sir Richard Heron, Bt. In the latter role he had to concede free trade and, more importantly, the enactment of the Papists Act 1778 which partially repealed the Penal laws and provided measures for the relief of Roman Catholics and Dissenters.

Family[edit]

He married firstly Mary Anne Drury, daughter of Sir Thomas Drury, 1st Baronet, and secondly Caroline, daughter of William James Conolly, but died without surviving male issue and was succeeded by his half-brother George Hobart, 3rd Earl of Buckinghamshire.

He had three daughters by his first wife:[3]

  • Lady Harriet, Marchioness of Lothian (1762–1805), who married William Kerr, 6th Marquess of Lothian, and was the mother of John Kerr, 7th Marquess of Lothian
  • Lady Caroline (died 1850), who married William Assheton Harbord, 2nd Baron Suffield
  • Lady Sophia (1768–1806), who married Richard Edgcumbe, 2nd Earl of Mount Edgcumbe

and three sons, who died young, and one daughter by his second wife:

  • Amelia Stewart, Viscountess Castlereagh (1772–1829), wife of the Foreign Secretary Robert Stewart, Viscount Castlereagh.
Mausoleum of the 2nd Earl in Blickling Park, Norfolk

He was laid to rest in the family mausoleum at Blickling Hall, the family seat in Norfolk. The bodies of his two wives are also in the mausoleum, which is an unusual grade II* listed pyramidal structure designed by architect Joseph Bonomi the Elder, based on the Roman tomb of Cestius Gallus.[4]

References[edit]

  1. ^'Hobart, John (HBRT739J)'. A Cambridge Alumni Database. University of Cambridge.
  2. ^Kelly, James. 'Hobart, John, second earl of Buckinghamshire'. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/13394.(Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  3. ^'John Hobart, 2nd Earl of Buckinghamshire'. The Peerage. Darryl Lundy. 29 July 2013. Retrieved 18 January 2019.
  4. ^Historic England. 'THE MAUSOLEUM (1051437)'. National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 12 March 2014.
  • Concise Dictionary of National Biography
Parliament of the United Kingdom
Preceded by
Thomas Vere
Horatio Walpole
Member of Parliament for Norwich
1747–1756
With: Horatio Walpole 1747–1756
Edward Bacon 1756
Succeeded by
Harbord Harbord
Political offices
Preceded by
Earl of Hillsborough
Comptroller of the Household
1756
Succeeded by
Lord Edgcumbe
Preceded by
Earl Harcourt
Lord Lieutenant of Ireland
1776-80
Succeeded by
Earl of Carlisle
Court offices
Preceded by
New government
Lord of the Bedchamber
1760–1767
Succeeded by
The Duke of Roxburghe
Diplomatic posts
Preceded by
Robert Murray Keith
Ambassador from the United Kingdom to Russia
1762–1764
Succeeded by
Earl Macartney
Peerage of Great Britain
Preceded by
John Hobart
Earl of Buckinghamshire
1756–1793
Succeeded by
George Hobart
Retrieved from 'https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=John_Hobart,_2nd_Earl_of_Buckinghamshire&oldid=965624481'

Pick up a Regency Era novel by any author and there is a high probability that before reaching the end Almack’s Assembly in London will be mentioned at least once. While this may appear to be gratuitous name tossing, the truth is that in the early decades of 1800 Almack’s was THE society locale. How this came to be is an interesting bit of history.

The origins are so modest as to be mysteriously unclear. Doors to the establishment on King’s Street in London opened on February 20, 1765. That much seems certain. The owner, a man named William Almack or William Macall, depending on the source, also opened a coffee house on Pall Mall which would eventually become Brook’s Gentlemen’s Club (Another story for another day!) Designed as a social and gambling club for women primarily, with men allowed, it was an unusual endeavor although not unique. Other both-gender casinos, such as The Pantheon on Oxford Street, already existed so competition was stiff.

Amelia Stewart Viscountess Castlereagh Actress

By the time fire destroyed The Pantheon in 1792 (it was rebuilt), Almack’s had risen gradually in financial success and prestige. The gambling/casino aspects dwindled and were gone by 1800. Dancing and socializing amongst the elite of London Society became the normal activity. Yet what truly set Almack’s apart was its membership exclusivity.

No one could simply walk into Almack’s. NO ONE! Vouchers for admission were granted on a yearly basis, and only those who passed the stringent assessment of the Lady Patronesses were honored with a voucher. There were no set rules, at least as far as anyone knows, the whims of the five to seven judging ladies deciding the fate of each applicant. Membership was limited so as to maintain the specialness, and the standards were strict. A hint of scandal, one tiny false move, questionable finances or breeding, a less-than perfect appearance … anything could prevent inclusion, or have a member stripped of their privileges.

For this reason Almack’s balls held each Wednesday night during the London Season were the prime event in town, and the best place to meet those of the opposite sex with quality. A pristine reputation was vital to the success of Almack’s Assembly, thus the entertainments were controlled and the conduct of those admitted closely observed. Beverages were non-alcoholic or watered, highly sweetened spirits with over imbibing not allowed. Dances were of the sedate, country style, at least until somewhere between 1813 and 1816 when the quadrille and then the Viennese waltz were introduced. Yet even then, decorum and propriety were key virtues at an Almack’s Assembly. As a result, it was a relatively safe place for a young woman or gentleman to be as they searched for the perfect mate.

How the various patronesses were selected, and how their reign evolved in also unclear. Changes occurred over the years, and since the patronesses were not elected or answerable to any sort of governing body, who was on the Almack’s committee from Season to Season is not firmly recorded. Those who did document the ladies at the helm often contradict each other. What we can be fairly sure of is that the following women of the Regency were patronesses for the bulk of the first two decades.

  • Amelia Stewart, Viscountess Castlereagh
  • Sarah Villiers, Countess of Jersey, who should not be confused with her mother-in-law, Frances Villiers, Countess of Jersey, one of the more notorious mistresses of George IV when he was Prince of Wales.
  • Emily Lamb, Lady Cowper, sister of the Prime Minister Lord Melbourne, and later married to another Prime Minister, Lord Palmerston.
  • Maria Molyneux, Countess of Sefton, wife of William Molyneux, 2nd Earl of Sefton.
  • The Hon. Sarah Clementina Drummond-Burrell, later Lady Willoughby de Eresby. Clementina was the only surviving child of James Drummond, 1st Baron Perth. On marriage, her husband Peter Burrell, a noted dandy, assumed the Drummond family name. He succeeded his father as 2ndBaron Gwydyr and subsequently his mother as 22nd Baron Willoughby de Eresby.
  • Dorothea Lieven, Countess de Lieven, wife of the Russian ambassador and a political force in her own right; Princess Lieven after 1826.
  • Countess Esterházy, wife of the Austrian ambassador Prince Paul Anton Esterházy; Princess Esterházy after 1833.

Amelia Stewart Viscountess Castlereagh Countess

The power of the patronesses, and importance of Almack’s to English society would continue for decades. Writers up to and during the Victorian Era speak of the establishment with reverential awe, although the later years did not compare to the height of the Regency. In 1871 new owners renamed the assembly Willis’s Rooms, ending the one-hundred year run. During the bombing of World War II the building was destroyed. Not a trace remains beyond drawings and written articles from the past. Almack House, an office building erected on the site, commemorates the history with the name but nothing else.

Amelia Stewart Viscountess Castlereagh Scottish

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